Government of India recently approved and adopted the National
Policy of Children (NPC) 2013. Looking at the need to expand the scope of The National Policy of Children 1974, the Ministry of Women and Child Development (MoWCD) prepared the Draft National Policy for Children 2012 and invited comments from public in August 2012. Thereafter after receiving comments, on 26th April 2013, the NPC
2013 was formally adopted. The final document appears robust, refined and on
prima facie appears to have incorporated a lot of suggestions given by civil
society organizations and citizens in general.
In the Introduction note of NPC 2013 document,
Government continues to restate children as ‘supremely important asset’.
Government of India
mentions about reiterating its commitment to secure the rights of its children
by referring to ratifications of various related international convention and
treaties. In the 2013 document there is an addition of Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination against
women. This addition surely reiterates
the fact that we as society cannot afford to deviate from our special attention
to girl child.
NPC 2013 document also sees a separate section on
Guiding Principles which was missing in Draft document. The Preamble is cut
short from 9 points to key 4 points where as all others key points have been
added in the section of Guiding Principles. In NPC 2013 overall reaffirmation sections
sees a change in language with a special addition of ‘every child is unique and a supremely important national asset’.
It is extremely heartening to see the change in language which is truly affirming
state’s commitment to rights based approach in addressing the continuing and
emerging challenges in the situation of children. Following is one such example
reflecting the change in language in two documents.
…the state is
committed to take proactive measures for inclusion of all children in accessing
their rights, especially those….. (Draft NPC 2012)
is committed to take affirmative measures – legislative, policy or otherwise to
promote and safeguard the rights of the children to live and grow in equity,
dignity and security and freedom, especially those…. (NPC 2013)
The Policy comprehensively and scrupulously details
out children related aspects within each broad category viz Survival, Health
Nutrition, Development, Protection and Participation.
Under the broad category of Survival, Health and Nutrition it is noticed that NPC 2013 gives
more succinct and elaborate explanations. In the current document, the earlier
mentioned Holistic health changes to
comprehensive health whereas Preventive
and curative changes to Preventive, promotive, curative and rehabilitative.
There is also special care taken in restating importance on every stage of
maternal health care and delivery where there are additions with mentions of antenatal care, post-natal care and
nutrition support. Survival Health and Nutrition category in NPC 2013 also
talk about additional three points of pertaining
to attention to adolescents, prevention of HIV infection transmission to
children, care of children living with HIV and child safe product and services.
Under the category of Education the first and foremost addition is mention of 6 to 14
years age group of children to be in school and to be able to enjoy the
fundamental right to education enshrined by the Constitution of India. The
policy defines the child as a person who has not completed 18 years of age
however with respect to primary education this one aspect has been separately
mentioned. NPC 2013 still carries some ambiguity surrounding secondary
education. Draft document stated ‘Promote
quality education up to the secondary level for all children’ where as NPC
2013 mentions ‘promote affordable and
accessible quality education up to secondary level for all children’. There
is also a mention of vocational training and age specific and a gender-specific
career choice option which was no where mentioned in the earlier draft.
The most impressive insertion in the Education section
is the following:
all out of school children such as child labourers, migrant children,
trafficked children, children of migrant labour, street children, child victims
of alcohol and substance abuse, children in areas of civil unrest, orphans,
children with disability (mental and physical), children with chronic ailments,
married children, children of manual scavengers, children of sex workers,
children of prisoners, etc. are tracked, rescued, rehabilitated and have access
to their right to education
The above insertion in NPC 2013 has been exceptional
in terms of mentioning each categorization of the most marginalized children,
their vulnerability and thus special attention for them to access their right
The NPC also sees certain small add-ons such as ensuring all teaching and learning processes
are child friendly and respect of
children’s culture and roots. Aspect of children’s health monitoring in
school and special attention for children with special needs also gains special
mention in the policy document.
Under the sub category of Protection there is a mention of ‘The State shall create a caring, protective and safe environment for
all children, to reduce their vulnerability in all situations and to keep them
safe at all places, especially public spaces’ The statement though very
strong but it is unclear why there appears a special mention of public spaces.
There is a very welcome and distinct statement with
respect to handling the issue of child protection. Along with child friendly jurisprudence, progressive
legislation a strong statement
enforcement of punitive legislative and administrative measures against all
forms of child abuse and neglect’ has
been added. This is surely a very welcome move with respect to gravity of child
abuse issue which our children face today.
The section of Participation
sees an addition of mention of children with disability. In fact the whole
document comprehensively encompasses mention of children with disability and
their special needs.
In the section of a Advocacy and Partnerships the NPC 2013 has special mention of
state’s plan to raise public awareness on child rights and entitlements among all stakeholders like parents, care-givers/guardians, functionaries and duty
bearers. This part was not mentioned in the earlier draft document.
Under the section of Coordination, Action and Monitoring there are two significant additions.
First, formation of coordination of Action Groups at state and district levels
along with National Coordination and Action Group (NCAG). The Ministry of women
and child development in consultation with other ministries and departments
will formulation National Plan for Children and similar plans would be
formulated by State and District level, where as the National, state and
district CAGs would then monitor the same.
Secondly, the policy document also states the role of NCPCR with respect to ensure that the principles of the Policy are respected in
all sectors/levels in formulation laws, policies and programs affecting
In India, we have a lot of ambiguity with respect to the definition of children across Child Rights related policies and Acts. This is one of the policy which defines any person below the age of eighteen as child. The commitments listed in this Policy are certainly put out in a good spirit of ensuring children’s rights are promoted and protected. I hope we as a nation rise together to address all issues related children and them in fore front as our primary obligation towards our little citizens.